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Acquired | Acquired

Total Raised




About Zoox

Zoox is a robotics company pioneering autonomous mobility. The company is developing a fully autonomous electric vehicle and the supporting ecosystem required to bring the technology to market at scale. Through cutting-edge research, engineering, and design efforts across hardware, software, and user experience, Zoox aims to provide the next generation of mobility-as-a-service in urban environments.On June 25th, 2020, Zoox was acquired by Amazon.2B.

Zoox Headquarters Location

1149 Chess Dr.

Foster City, California, 94404,

United States


ESPs containing Zoox

The ESP matrix leverages data and analyst insight to identify and rank leading companies in a given technology landscape.

Transportation & Logistics / Automotive Tech

Startups in this market are designing autonomous vehicles from the ground up, purpose-built as passenger cars and shuttles, largely to be used for autonomous ride-hailing services. These vehicles take a variety of form factors — some resemble a traditional passenger vehicle and others are designed to optimize space and utility for multiple passengers.

Zoox named as Outperformer among 5 other companies, including EasyMile, May Mobility, and Optimus Ride.

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Expert Collections containing Zoox

Expert Collections are analyst-curated lists that highlight the companies you need to know in the most important technology spaces.

Zoox is included in 5 Expert Collections, including Digital Health.


Digital Health

8,838 items

Startups recreating how healthcare is delivered


Auto & Mobility Tech

2,752 items

Startups building a next-generation mobility ecosystem, using technology to improve connectivity, safety, convenience, and efficiency in vehicles.Includes technologies such as ADAS and autonomous driving, connected vehicles, fleet telematics, V2V/V2X, and vehicle cybersecurity.


Smart Cities

1,937 items


AI 100

99 items


Artificial Intelligence

9,391 items

This collection includes startups selling AI SaaS, using AI algorithms to develop their core products, and those developing hardware to support AI workloads.

Zoox Patents

Zoox has filed 559 patents.

The 3 most popular patent topics include:

  • Autonomous cars
  • Diagrams
  • Sensors
patents chart

Application Date

Grant Date


Related Topics




Image processing, Digital photography, Computer vision, 3D imaging, Autonomous cars


Application Date


Grant Date



Related Topics

Image processing, Digital photography, Computer vision, 3D imaging, Autonomous cars



Latest Zoox News

Truly autonomous cars may be impossible without helpful human touch

Sep 12, 2022

09/12/2022 | 02:08am EDT Message : *Required fields MILTON KEYNES, England (Reuters) - Autonomous vehicle (AV) startups have raised tens of billions of dollars based on promises to develop truly self-driving cars, but industry executives and experts say remote human supervisors may be needed permanently to help robot drivers in trouble. The central premise of autonomous vehicles - that computers and artificial intelligence will dramatically reduce accidents caused by human error - has driven much of the research and investment. But there is a catch: Making robot cars that can drive more safely than people is immensely tough because self-driving software systems simply lack humans' ability to predict and assess risk quickly, especially when encountering unexpected incidents or "edge cases." "Well, my question would be, 'Why?'" said Kyle Vogt, CEO of Cruise, a unit of General Motors, when asked if he could see a point where remote human overseers should be removed from operations. "I can provide my customers peace of mind knowing there is always a human there to help if needed," Vogt said. "I don't know why I'd ever want to get rid of that." This is the first time Cruise has acknowledged the long-term need for remote human operators. Alphabet Inc's Waymo and Argo, which is backed by Ford Motor Co and Volkswagen AG, declined to comment when asked the same question. GM recalled and updated software in 80 Cruise self-driving vehicles this month after a June crash in San Francisco left two people injured. U.S. safety regulators said the recalled software could "incorrectly predict" an oncoming vehicle's path, and Cruise said the unusual scenario would not recur after the update. For some, the idea that human supervisors could be here to stay raises more doubts about the technology. Truly autonomous vehicles are far behind the optimistic rollout schedules predicted just a few years ago. In 2018, GM sought U.S. government approval for a fully autonomous car without a steering wheel, brake or accelerator pedals that would enter its commercial ride-sharing fleet in 2019. That vehicle, the Cruise Origin, now is not slated to begin production until spring 2023, Vogt said. In 2019, Tesla Inc CEO Elon Musk promised a million robotaxis "next year for sure" - though his company's "Full Self Driving" offering has been criticized because its cars are not capable of driving themselves without a human behind the wheel and ready to take manual control in an emergency. In a June interview on YouTube, Musk said developing self-driving cars was "way harder than I originally thought, by far." But when asked for a timeline, he said Tesla could make it "this year." Tesla did not respond to a request for comment for this story. The undelivered promise of true autonomy has raised the stakes for the AV industry. "If these companies don't succeed over the next two years, they're not going to exist anymore," said Mike Wagner, CEO of Edge Case Research, which helps AV companies assess, manage and insure risk. "It's a case of put up or shut up at this point." REMOTE HUMANS WATCHING Many AV startups today use humans as remote supervisors, alongside safety drivers sitting behind the wheel. Those remote humans are an additional expense, but help self-driving cars handle edge cases. These could include something as basic as an unfamiliar set of lane closures during road construction, or erratic, unpredictable behavior by pedestrians or human drivers. When a robot driver encounters an edge case, "it puts its hands up and says, 'I don't know what's going on,'" said Koosha Kaveh, CEO of Imperium Drive, which is using humans as remote operators for cars in the English city of Milton Keynes. Over time, those people will act as "air traffic controllers," supervising a growing number of autonomous cars. Cruise's Vogt says the company's AVs on the roads in San Francisco currently rely on humans less than 1% of the time. But across hundreds, thousands or even millions of AVs, that would add up to a significant amount of time stopped on the road waiting for human guidance. Imperium Drive's Kaveh said as more self-driving cars - which are more predictable than humans - hit the roads the number of edge cases will drop, "but you will never get to zero edge cases." "Even decades from now you will not get to 100% truly autonomous vehicles," Kaveh added. Nevertheless, competition is rising. Some Chinese cities are pushing to allow active AV testing more quickly. The need to tackle edge cases and cut the costs of everything from sensors to the number of humans in the loop in order to get to market has also intensified because investor funding for autonomous cars has plummeted. Doubt has crept in as investors puzzle over how soon autonomous business will turn profitable. Simpler or slower AVs like trucks or last-mile delivery services operating on highways or on set, low-speed routes are likely to reach profitability first, but will still take years to get there. Overall investment in future mobility startups has slowed, with AV-focused companies hit especially hard, representing less than 10% of venture investment in the second quarter, according to investor website PitchBook. Graphic: Investment in AV startups in the quarter dropped to $958 million. Just two years ago AV investment was booming, as Alphabet's Waymo raised $3 billion, Didi's AV unit raised $500 million and Inc acquired AV startup Zoox for $1.3 billion, according to PitchBook. 'RUSH TO MARKET' Autonomous systems are not as capable as people because their "perception and prediction algorithms are not as good as how a human brain processes and decides," said Chris Borroni-Bird, an independent consultant who previously led advanced-vehicle programs at GM and Waymo. For instance, a human when seeing a ball roll into the road - harmless by itself - will assume it could be followed by a child and hit the brakes far quicker than an AV, Borroni-Bird said. "I am concerned that AV companies will rush to market without proving the safety is better than human-driven vehicles," he added. The problem is there are "tens of billions of potential edge cases" that AVs could encounter, said James Routh, CEO of AB Dynamics, which conducts tests and runs simulations on cars including on the advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) that are the foundation of autonomous driving features. Auto data startup Wejo Group Ltd receives 18 billion data points daily from millions of connected cars and is helping with simulations for AVs, said Sarah Larner, executive vice president for strategy and innovation. "But there are so many variables such as weather, you can take an edge case and then have to layer in all the different variants," she said. "It's truly millions of outputs." DRIVERLESS DELIVERY In its track tests for cars, AB Dynamics employs a robot arm that it plans to retrofit on slow-moving mining and agricultural trucks to make them largely autonomous. Routh envisages a remote team of humans supervising fleets of, for instance, self-driving mining trucks operating in closed environments. He does not see that scenario working for vehicles in faster, more open environments because it could be difficult for remote human supervisors to react quickly enough to dangers. Within the next 12 months, British online food delivery and technology company Ocado Group Plc will roll out a small fleet of driverless delivery vehicles with autonomous vehicle software startup Oxbotica - backed by remote human supervisors - that will operate on just a few streets on set routes in a small UK city and never drive at speeds above 30 miles (48 km) per hour. "At 30 miles an hour, if a vehicle panics, it can hit the emergency brake and seek help," Ocado's head of advanced technology, Alex Harvey, said. "This feels like a very viable strategy at low speed." "But you can't play that game on a motorway," Harvey added, because hard stops in edge cases would pose a safety risk. Harvey said it should take around five years for Ocado to develop a profitable driverless delivery system. More than half of Ocado's UK customers could be reached with AVs driving no more than 40 mph he said. Eventually, the service could be rolled out to Ocado clients like U.S. retail chain Kroger Co. (Reporting by Nick Carey in Milton Keynes, England, and Paul Lienert in Detroit; Editing by Ben Klayman and Matthew Lewis) By Nick Carey and Paul Lienert

  • When was Zoox founded?

    Zoox was founded in 2014.

  • Where is Zoox's headquarters?

    Zoox's headquarters is located at 1149 Chess Dr., Foster City.

  • What is Zoox's latest funding round?

    Zoox's latest funding round is Acquired.

  • How much did Zoox raise?

    Zoox raised a total of $990M.

  • Who are the investors of Zoox?

    Investors of Zoox include Amazon, Blackbird Ventures, Threshold Ventures, Thomas Tull, Lux Capital and 7 more.

  • Who are Zoox's competitors?

    Competitors of Zoox include Cruise Automation, May Mobility, Apex.AI,, Optimus Ride,, Applied Intuition, UISEE Technology, Waymo, Nauto and 15 more.

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