Expert Collections containing Mimerse
Expert Collections are analyst-curated lists that highlight the companies you need to know in the most important technology spaces.
Mimerse is included in 3 Expert Collections, including AR/VR.
This collection includes companies creating hardware and/or software for augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality applications.
Beauty & Personal Care
These startups aim to provide health treatments, diagnosis tools, and products that do not require a prescription or connection with a health professional to enhance personal wellbeing. This includes supplements, women's health maintenance, OTC medicines, and more.
The digital health collection includes vendors developing software, platforms, sensor & robotic hardware, health data infrastructure, and tech-enabled services in healthcare. The list excludes pureplay pharma/biopharma, sequencing instruments, gene editing, and assistive tech.
Latest Mimerse News
May 19, 2023
Journal of Medical Internet Research This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue: September 01, 2022 Physical Versus Virtual Reality–Based Calm Rooms for Psychiatric Inpatients: Quasi-Randomized Trial Authors of this article: 2Institute of Health Care Sciences, Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden 3Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden 4University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care, Gothenburg, Sweden 5Region Västragötaland, Forensic Psychiatric Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden 6Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden 7Mediary, Stockholm, Sweden Psychiatric Department Abstract Background: Interest in sensory rooms or so-called “calm rooms” in psychiatric inpatient care has increased significantly. In a hospital setting, their purpose is to introduce a relaxing environment to increase well-being as well as to decrease anxiety and aggressive behaviors. Calm rooms can also be used as a tool to provide self-help through a convenient environment for the patients and, at the same time, strengthen the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the professional. Recent developments in virtual reality (VR) have made virtual calm rooms possible, but these have not yet been evaluated in psychiatric inpatient care. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of VR and physical calm rooms on self-reported well-being and physiological markers of arousal. Methods: The study was conducted in 2 inpatient psychiatric wards specializing in bipolar disorder from March 2019 to February 2021. Patients who were already admitted were asked if they were interested in using a calm room and willing to provide ratings. This study relied on the quasi-randomized allocation of patients to the wards, which either had a physical or VR calm room. Self-assessment scales (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Assessment [MADRS-S], Beck Anxiety Scale, and Clinical Global Impression) were used to determine the participants' baseline level of depressive and anxiety symptoms before their use of the physical or VR calm room. The study determined the state of well-being measured using an 11-point visual analog scale (VAS) as well as arousal measured by blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate before and after the use of the calm rooms. The primary end point was self-reported well-being using the VAS. Results: A total of 60 participants were included—40 used the VR calm room and 20 used the physical calm room. The mean age of participants was 39 years and the majority were women (35/60, 58%). Analysis of VAS measurement showed improved well-being at the group level from before to after the intervention (P<.05), with no statistically significant difference in effects between the 2 different interventions. Effects were not moderated by baseline depression levels (dichotomized as MADRS-S >20 or ≤20) despite an overall difference in reported well-being between subgroups. Conclusions: Although the power in this study was low, the findings of this first study indicate comparable effects with respect to well-being and arousal of a VR calm room and a physical calm room. This suggests that a VR calm room can be a viable alternative when the use of a physical calm room is not an option for logistic or other reasons. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03918954; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03918954 J Med Internet Res 2023;25:e42365 Overview The main objective of this quasi-randomized study was to explore the effects of a physical calm room on self-reported well-being compared to a VR calm room for patients admitted to inpatient psychiatric intensive care. We did not find any statistically significant between-group differences in relaxation effects. However, both groups reported increased well-being and decreased HR, albeit with no effect on BP. Effects were not moderated by baseline depression levels despite an overall difference in reported well-being between subgroups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the effects of a physical calm room to VR relaxation. Our findings are, however, in line with previous studies on both physical calm rooms [ 1 , 3 , 5 ] and VR relaxation [ 23 , 25 , 31 , 37 ]. Our results suggest that VR relaxation can be considered when there is no opportunity to have a physical calm room due to limitations of space, safety reasons, financial limitations, or similar. Designed VR environments used in clinical therapies, such as exposure therapies for phobias, can resolve many logistic issues [ 28 , 29 ] and support patient autonomy. In addition, VR supports the ability to relax by increasing the state of mindful awareness [ 38 ]. Both VR apps and physical calm rooms have shown an increased sense of “relaxation” [ 6 ]. In our study, participants reported that overall well-being was significantly increased. Relaxation is the state of calmness that fosters positive well-being including strategies, such as breathing exercises, meditation, and guided muscle relaxation. With these strategies, high BP and HR may be lowered [ 9 ]. Effects of VR calming rooms are not explored, but there is a couple of studies that show reduced distress levels and lower HR [ 39 , 40 ]. A previous study [ 41 ] supports that HR and some other physical signs of arousal reduced after the use of multisensory treatment as well that patients felt more relaxed, focused, calm, and comfortable aligned with the results of our study and allows to draw conclusion that sensory interventions are likely to reduce distress inducing the subjective well-being in psychiatric inpatient care. Limitations of this study include lower than the planned statistical power, as well as the quasi-random allocation to the different calm room interventions. According to the initial trial design, the sample was set to include 100 participants with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was paused between January 2020 and July 2020, making it unfeasible to recruit the target sample size during the study timeframe. In addition, the hospital had a lack of beds, and patients who were diagnosed with other than bipolar disorder were included in the study. The achieved sample size of 60 (40+20) allowed us to detect with 80% power, a between-group difference of d>0.78 postintervention compared to d>0.57 as originally planned. Moreover, the lack of a predefined, clinically anchored, noninferiority limit precludes us from analyzing the study using this approach. Regarding the quasi-random allocation, this was a necessity stemming from running the study at a psychiatric inpatient clinic. Allocation, in this fully naturalistic trial, was based by necessity on clinic prerequisites (eg, bed availability and staffing) and not on study-specific allocation; thus, because it was not fully randomized, allocation was nonetheless seemingly independent of participant factors that could risk confounding results. For example, patients were not allocated to the different wards (and therefore interventions) due to severity of distress. Difference in achieved sample size ratio, as well as some differences in patient characteristics and baseline measures, indicate that the allocation was not completely free of systematic influences. Moreover, almost all the physical calm room group were female (16/29, 80%) compared to an even gender distribution in the VR room group. Furthermore, patients have not had any option to choose the room they wanted to experience, but they were allocated to the respective wards. The gender imbalance considers as a limitation because we cannot report if the intervention equal associated with an induced well-being because of gender as a factor. We may assume that the gender imbalance exists toward the physical sensory room due to different preferences between women and men. Alternatively, supervising personal may assume that women prefer a sensory room. The personal have had the responsibility to check the inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as the clinical characteristics and may have excluded more male patients than females or became influenced by social norms which indicate that males not seeking help [ 42 ]. In addition, length of stay was determined for the 2 calm rooms; however, this should not be considered an outcome in itself. The importance of measuring time spent in the intervention is hard to interpret in a quantitative study and should rather be explored in a qualitative way. A previous study shows that the greater amount of time spent in sensory room did not necessarily related with stress-relieving outcomes [ 43 ]. A further limitation is that the calm modalities of VR and a physical calm room are not the same; however, the comparison of using these 2 methods for relaxation should not be affected in a serious manner. Future research could examine whether VR relaxation can decrease the use of sedatives as well as aggressive behavior in the ward. Some studies have found no link between seclusion and aggressive behavior with the use of physical calm rooms. One small study did not find a decreased frequency of self-harm during the test period, although there was a low level of participation [ 2 ]. The same applies to another small study that did not find a reduction in the rate of seclusion for 13 participants [ 44 ]. The wards included in our study primarily receive patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Therefore, when the study was planned, patients with schizophrenia were excluded due to the practical reason of them being very few in these units. However, patients with a psychotic diagnosis need to be included in future studies. Due to small sample size and lack of controlled trials, research on physical calm rooms remains inconclusive, albeit promising. However, VR technology has become affordable and more accessible, which has led to its increasingly widespread use in psychiatric care [ 45 ]. Conclusions In conclusion, both VR and physical calm rooms were associated with an improvement in overall well-being and appear to be feasible self-relaxation methods for use in psychiatric inpatient care. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the 2 different interventions, although power was low in this first study of a VR calm room in psychiatric inpatient setting. Acknowledgments The authors want to thank all the participants. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the contribution of the participating Psychiatry Affective Departments, their managers, and in particular the area manager, Mathias Alvidius, for their support and assistance in conducting the study. The authors would also like to thank Peter Todd (Tajut Ltd, Kaiapoi, New Zealand) for third-party editorial assistance in the drafting of this manuscript, for which he received financial compensation. The Stiftelsen Psykiatriska Forskningsfonden provided partial financing for the project. Data Availability Due to local regulations, we are not able to share the data freely but raw data can be provided from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Conflicts of Interest WH founded and served as CTO of Mimerse, the company that developed the Calm Place app. Mimerse is no longer an active company and had no role in collecting or analyzing data. PL reports having consulted for Mimerse. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. References Champagne T, Stromberg N. Sensory approaches in inpatient psychiatric settings: innovative alternatives to seclusion and restraint. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2004;42(9):34-44. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Sivak K. Implementation of comfort rooms to reduce seclusion, restraint use, and acting-out behaviors. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2012;50(2):24-34. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Cummings KS, Grandfield SA, Coldwell CM. Caring with comfort rooms: reducing seclusion and restraint use in psychiatric facilities. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2010;48(6):26-30. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Andersen C, Kolmos A, Andersen K, Sippel V, Stenager E. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint: a case control study. Nord J Psychiatry 2017;71(7):525-528. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Novak T, Scanlan J, McCaul D, MacDonald N, Clarke T. Pilot study of a sensory room in an acute inpatient psychiatric unit. Australas Psychiatry 2012;20(5):401-406. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Björkdahl A, Perseius KI, Samuelsson M, Lindberg MH. Sensory rooms in psychiatric inpatient care: staff experiences. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2016;25(5):472-479. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Seckman A, Paun O, Heipp B, Van Stee M, Keels-Lowe V, Beel F, et al. Evaluation of the use of a sensory room on an adolescent inpatient unit and its impact on restraint and seclusion prevention. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2017;30(2):90-97. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Scanlan JN, Novak T. Sensory approaches in mental health: a scoping review. Aust Occup Ther J 2015;62(5):277-285. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Riches S, Azevedo L, Bird L, Pisani S, Valmaggia L. Virtual reality relaxation for the general population: a systematic review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021;56(10):1707-1727 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Freeman D, Reeve S, Robinson A, Ehlers A, Clark D, Spanlang B, et al. Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. Psychol Med 2017;47(14):2393-2400 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Clus D, Larsen ME, Lemey C, Berrouiguet S. The use of virtual reality in patients with eating disorders: systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2018;20(4):e157 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Chavez LJ, Kelleher K, Slesnick N, Holowacz E, Luthy E, Moore L, et al. Virtual reality meditation among youth experiencing homelessness: pilot randomized controlled trial of feasibility. JMIR Ment Health 2020;7(9):e18244 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Scarfe P, Glennerster A. The science behind virtual reality displays. Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019;5:529-547. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Lindner P, Miloff A, Bergman C, Andersson G, Hamilton W, Carlbring P. Gamified, automated virtual reality exposure therapy for fear of spiders: a single-subject trial under simulated real-world conditions. Front Psychiatry 2020;11:116 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Anderson PL, Price M, Edwards SM, Obasaju MA, Schmertz SK, Zimand E, et al. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2013;81(5):751-760. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Bouchard S, Dumoulin S, Robillard G, Guitard T, Klinger E, Forget H, et al. Virtual reality compared with exposure in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: a three-arm randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2017;210(4):276-283. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Reger GM, Koenen-Woods P, Zetocha K, Smolenski DJ, Holloway KM, Rothbaum BO, et al. Randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). J Consult Clin Psychol 2016;84(11):946-959. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Repetto C, Gaggioli A, Pallavicini F, Cipresso P, Raspelli S, Riva G. Virtual reality and mobile phones in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders: a phase-2 clinical trial. Pers Ubiquit Comput 2013;17(2):253-260. [ CrossRef ] Miloff A, Lindner P, Hamilton W, Reuterskiöld L, Andersson G, Carlbring P. Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Trials 2016;17(1):60 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Botella C, Fernández-Álvarez J, Guillén V, García-Palacios A, Baños R. Recent progress in virtual reality exposure therapy for phobias: a systematic review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2017;19(7):42. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Lindner P, Miloff A, Hamilton W, Carlbring P. The potential of consumer-targeted virtual reality relaxation applications: descriptive usage, uptake and application performance statistics for a first-generation application. Front Psychol 2019;10:132 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Annerstedt M, Jönsson P, Wallergård M, Johansson G, Karlson B, Grahn P, et al. Inducing physiological stress recovery with sounds of nature in a virtual reality forest: results from a pilot study. Physiol Behav 2013;118:240-250. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Hedblom M, Gunnarsson B, Iravani B, Knez I, Schaefer M, Thorsson P, et al. Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):10113 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Baños RM, Botella C, Guillen V, García-Palacios A, Quero S, Bretón-López J, et al. An adaptive display to treat stress-related disorders: EMMA's world. Br J Guid Counc 2009;37(3):347-356. [ CrossRef ] Serrano B, Baños RM, Botella C. Virtual reality and stimulation of touch and smell for inducing relaxation: a randomized controlled trial. Comput Hum Behav 2016;55:1-8. [ CrossRef ] Lindner P, Dagöö J, Hamilton W, Miloff A, Andersson G, Schill A, et al. Virtual Reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety in routine care: a single-subject effectiveness trial. Cogn Behav Ther 2021;50(1):67-87 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Carl E, Stein AT, Levihn-Coon A, Pogue JR, Rothbaum B, Emmelkamp P, et al. Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and related disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Anxiety Disord 2019;61:27-36. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Lindner P, Miloff A, Hamilton W, Reuterskiöld L, Andersson G, Powers MB, et al. Creating state of the art, next-generation virtual reality exposure therapies for anxiety disorders using consumer hardware platforms: design considerations and future directions. Cogn Behav Ther 2017;46(5):404-420. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Fagernäs S, Hamilton W, Espinoza N, Miloff A, Carlbring P, Lindner P. What do users think about virtual reality relaxation applications? A mixed methods study of online user reviews using natural language processing. Internet Interv 2021;24:100370 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Thunström AO, Sarajlic Vukovic I, Ali L, Larson T, Steingrimsson S. Prevalence of virtual reality (VR) games found through mental health categories on STEAM: a first look at VR on commercial platforms as tools for therapy. Nord J Psychiatry 2022;76(6):474-485. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Gerber SM, Jeitziner MM, Wyss P, Chesham A, Urwyler P, Müri RM, et al. Visuo-acoustic stimulation that helps you to relax: a virtual reality setup for patients in the intensive care unit. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):13228 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Pardini S, Gabrielli S, Dianti M, Novara C, Zucco GM, Mich O, et al. The role of personalization in the user experience, preferences and engagement with virtual reality environments for relaxation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19(12):7237 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Müller MJ, Himmerich H, Kienzle B, Szegedi A. Differentiating moderate and severe depression using the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS). J Affect Disord 2003;77(3):255-260. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56(6):893-897. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Busner J, Targum SD. The clinical global impressions scale: applying a research tool in clinical practice. Psychiatry (Edgmont) 2007;4(7):28-37 [ FREE Full text ] [ Medline ] Lesage F, Berjot S, Deschamps F. Clinical stress assessment using a visual analogue scale. Occup Med (Lond) 2012;62(8):600-605. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Anderson AP, Mayer MD, Fellows AM, Cowan DR, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Relaxation with immersive natural scenes presented using virtual reality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2017;88(6):520-526. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Seabrook E, Kelly R, Foley F, Theiler S, Thomas N, Wadley G, et al. Understanding how virtual reality can support mindfulness practice: mixed methods study. J Med Internet Res 2020;22(3):e16106 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Mills CJ, Tracey D, Kiddle R, Gorkin R. Evaluating a virtual reality sensory room for adults with disabilities. Sci Rep 2023;13(1):495 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Harrison K, Potts E, King AC, Braun-Trocchio R. The effectiveness of virtual reality on anxiety and performance in female soccer players. Sports (Basel) 2021;9(12):167 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Reddon JR, Hoang T, Sehgal S, Marjanovic Z. Immediate effects of snoezelen® treatment on adult psychiatric patients and community controls. Curr Psychol 2004;23(3):225-237. [ CrossRef ] West M, Melvin G, McNamara F, Gordon M. An evaluation of the use and efficacy of a sensory room within an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit. Aust Occup Ther J 2017;64(3):253-263. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Wiglesworth S, Farnworth L. An exploration of the use of a sensory room in a forensic mental health setting: staff and patient perspectives. Occup Ther Int 2016;23(3):255-264 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Smith S, Jones J. Use of a sensory room on an intensive care unit. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2014;52(5):22-30. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ] Valmaggia LR, Day F, Rus-Calafell M. Using virtual reality to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms associated with the onset and maintenance of psychosis: a systematic review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2016;51(7):921-936. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
Mimerse Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Where is Mimerse's headquarters?
Mimerse's headquarters is located at Stortorget 7, Stockholm.
What is Mimerse's latest funding round?
Mimerse's latest funding round is Seed VC.
How much did Mimerse raise?
Mimerse raised a total of $750K.
Who are the investors of Mimerse?
Investors of Mimerse include Almi Invest, Rikard Steiber, Mattias Weinhandl and Vinnova.