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Executives

2

Lightwave Power Management Team

2 Team Members

Lightwave Power has 2 executives. Lightwave Power's current Chief Technology Officer is Dennis Slafer.

Name

Work History

Title

Status

Dennis Slafer

Chief Technology Officer

Current

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Name

Dennis Slafer

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Work History

Title

Chief Technology Officer

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Current

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M
M V Systems

M V Systems is a company that received a SBIR Phase II grant for a project entitled: Fabrication of Low-bandgap Nano-crystalline SiGeC Thin Films Using the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) Technique. Their their award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 project is to develop thin film tandem solar cells, comprising of nanocrystalline silicon and silicon carbon (nc-Si and nc-Si:C) absorber materials, with a conversion efficiency of ~20%. The phase I project successfully developed one of the key components, i.e. intrinsic nc-Si:C with a band gap, Eg, of ~ 1.5 eV and with good opto-electronic properties. This key material will be used initially in phase II to fabricate cells in a single junction configuration with an efficiency goal of ~10%. Previously, developed "device quality" nc-Si materials, with Eg ~1.1eV, were used to produce solar cells with efficiency ~8%. Integrating the two devices in a tandem junction configuration is forecast to yield efficiencies of ~18%. Further improvement in the tandem junction device efficiency,to ~20%, may be achieved via the use of buffer layers at the p/i or i/n interfaces and by increasing the grain size which would boost the open circuit voltage, Voc. Higher efficiency thin film tandem solar cells will be critical to achieving the low costs necessary to achieve widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy generating systems. M V Systems is a company that received a SBIR Phase I grant for a project entitled: Fabrication of low-bandgap nano-crystalline SiGeC thin films using the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technique. Their project will develop nanocrystalline SiGeC thin films with an optical bandgap (Eg) in the range of 1.6-1.8 eV, and enhanced absorption characteristics, leading to low-cost, high-efficiency (>20%) photovoltaic devices. Previous attempts at improving the photovoltaic efficiency have not been consistent and successful. The proposed approach uses plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique to deposit these films, which allows greater control of the process by being able to manipulate the plasma and electron temperatures to control the ion density in the plasma, with an independent control of the process parameters. This flexibility does not exist in the currently used techniques. With the proposed technique, stable and consistent films of SiGeC can be deposited on the desired substrate at moderate temperatures. If successfully developed, this technique could provide higher efficiency solar cells for the alternative energy market. The goal of highly stable films, high deposition efficiency and process scalability for large-scale manufacturing can only be achieved if the basic process can be proven. The broader impacts of this research will be in the low-cost photovoltaic (PV) devices for power generation market. If successfully completed, this research could lead to a strong partnership between solar cell manufacturers and equipment manufacturers, leading to a potentially lucrative photovoltaics market. Currently, electricity generated with available PV devices is 3-4 times more expensive as the conventional electricity. The selected materials (Si, Ge and C) for the thin film are abundantly available, which can significantly reduce the raw materials costs. A large body of basic knowledge of the requirements of solar electricity for the competitive market already exists, which makes the development of the process with a realistic performance target easy to achieve. The main challenge for achieving this goal lies in being able to control the deposition process to assure a stable and robust process, as the previous work has not been able to achieve consistent results. The initial target of producing a triple-junction thin-film solar cell is a worthy first product demonstration, which will prove the efficacy of the proposed technique, and attract third-party funding with little difficulty.

J
Jem Enterprises

Jem Enterprises is a company that received a SBIR Phase I grant for a project entitled: Tin(II) Sulfide Photovoltaics. Their project aims to develop photovoltaic devices based on tin (II) sulfide (SnS). The properties of SnS, including bandgaps, carrier density and mobility, chemical and thermal stability, and metallurgical properties, promise the possibility to achieve relatively high conversion efficiency given state-of-art process control and device design. In this project, close space sublimation (CSS) technique, a thin film fabrication method proven for low cost and high manufacturability, will be used to synthesize SnS. The broader/commercial impact of this project will be the potential to produce photovoltaic devices based on low-cost and environmentally-friendly materials. There is no doubt that solar electricity has attracted a lot of attention in recent years as an alternative and renewable energy source. However, most of the current solar cell technologies have one or more of the following issues that, (1) raw materials are not abundantly available; (2) toxic materials are used; (3) overall cost is high. This project will address these issues by developing photovoltaic devices using SnS, a semiconductor material that can be supplied on a massive scale and at low recovery costs.

A
Anteos

Anteos is a company that received a SBIR Phase II grant for a project entitled: Relief-Free Infrared Diffractive Optics Based on Semiconductor Materials. Their award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5) and their project will develop a new generation of relief-free thin-plate components of diffractive optics operating in the infrared region of spectrum. The diffractive optics employs volume phase holographic structures, which are optically recorded in semiconductor materials transparent at the infrared wavelengths using proprietary process of photo-modification for producing dramatic change of the material refractive index under illumination with low intensity light. Phase I of this project proved feasibility of the proposed concept by demonstrating photo modification of ZnSe infrared material and fabricating the first model components. The developed technology can be immediately applied to fabrication of diffractive optics, volume phase holographic gratings, and phase retardation plates for wavelengths up to 1.9 m, as well as antireflection layers for wavelengths up to 8 m. In Phase II project the technology will be optimized and applied to fabrication of the prototype components of infrared diffractive optics operating at longer wavelengths, including the important wavelength of CO2 laser 10.6 m and windows of atmospheric transparency 3-5 and 8-12 m. The developed photo-modification process is highly adaptable and creates a rich technology platform for fabrication of a broad range of products for a large variety of markets. Successful implementation of this technology will result in a new generation of high efficiency relief-free infrared diffractive optics and sub-wavelength components, including diffraction gratings, beam splitters, beam shapers, semiconductor materials with artificial birefringence, phase retardation plates and wave plates. The relief-free components of infrared diffractive optics based on semiconductor materials are capable to withstand high light intensities and perform complicated light management functions. Another important application is the fabrication of highly stable anti-reflection (AR) layers on infrared semiconductor optics. The market for infrared diffractive optics includes defense and airspace industry, laser industry, spectral devices, sensors and detectors, night vision optics, industrial process control, material processing, cutting and welding, environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics and surgery. Anteos is a company that received a SBIR Phase II grant for a project entitled: High-Efficiency Nanocomposite Photovoltaics and Solar Cells. Their project is focused on development of an innovative technology for fabrication of high-efficiency thin film nanocomposite photovoltaic materials and solar cells taking advantage of the recently discovered effect of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals. The proposed concept employs smart design of the solar cells providing fast and effective spatial separation of electrons and holes photo-generated in the nanocrystals. The proposed reach nanotechnology platform solves the challenging problem of electrical communications with nanoscale objects, such as nanocrystals, nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, etc. It can be employed for development of many other nanocomposite optoelectronic devices having numerous commercial and military applications. If successful the development of new generation of high-efficiency photovoltaic materials and solar cells based on the demonstrated technology will have broad impact on the entire solar energy industry resulting in considerable energy savings and environmental protection. The technology has great commercialization potential and niche market. The proposed all-inorganic, high-efficiency, thin film, flexible nanostructured photovoltaic materials and solar cells, which can operate in extreme environment conditions and offer significant mass and volume savings, are ideally suitable for numerous applications, including power generating residential rooftops, power supplies for utility grid, emergency signals and telephones, water pumps, activate switches, battery chargers, residential and commercial lighting, etc.

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Silicon Photonics Group

Silicon Photonics Group is a company that received a STTR Phase I grant for a project entitled: Advanced Si-Ge-Sn-based Photonic Materials and Devices. Their research project aims to demonstrate prototype infrared light detectors and photovoltaic (solar cell) devices based on technology developed at Arizona State University. The new technology to be explored consists in growing optical-quality alloys of tin and germanium (Ge1-ySny) directly on silicon wafers. These alloys act as infrared materials, and they can also be used as templates for the subsequent growth of other semiconductors on silicon. Of particular interest for this project is the ternary alloy Ge1-x-ySixSny, grown for the first time at Arizona State University. Using this technology, it should be possible to build infrared detectors covering a spectral range previously inaccessible to silicon-based detectors, and to build multijunction photovoltaic devices for a more efficient capture of solar photons. The fabrication of semiconductor devices on cheap silicon wafers is of great significance because of the potentially enormous cost reductions and the possibility of integrating optoelectronic and microelectronic functions, which further reduces costs and contributes to system miniaturization. The infrared detectors proposed here cover the so-called telecom C-,L-, and U-bands within the wavelength window around 1500 nm, a region of great interest to the telecommunications industry. In the photovoltaics arena, the proposed devices have the potential to offer increased efficiencies to make crystalline silicon-based devices competitive with amorphous silicon solutions.

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Isosceles

Isosceles is a company that received a STTR Phase I grant for a project entitled: Full Spectrum Conjugated Polymers for Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics. Their their award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and their project will demonstrate the feasibility of forming full spectrum highly efficient polymer solar cells from newly designed conjugated and potentially variable bandgap polymers that harvest visible through infrared light. The novel materials will be forged by incorporating Silole and donor-acceptor-donor moieties into the backbone and are expected to increase light harvesting and carrier mobility, and hence short circuit current output potentially by a factor of three over the state of the art. The key innovations of this work will also optimize energy levels to reduce voltage loss and further optimization of device structure and film morphology is expected improve fill factor. The primary objective of phase I is to determine the feasibility of forging full spectrum and high carrier mobility conjugated polymers that achieve highly efficient solar conversion. An ancillary goal of this work is arrive at an understanding of photophysical processes and device physics that will lead to optimal device fabrication during phase II. The environmental, societal and economic impacts of this technology are enormously broad. The ensuing abrupt drop in energy costs stemming from full spectrum harvesting promises to deliver stability and urgently needed relief to today's volatile oil based global economy. While photovoltaic (PV) production is already the fastest growing source of energy across the globe, the planned efforts of this STTR project are expected to disruptively reduce the projected cost of photovoltaic production in 2010 by a factor of 3. At a forecasted production cost of $0.70 per Watt, this research will demonstrate a technology that is competitive with the cost of electricity that is produced from fossil fuels. This technology will provide clean and cost competitive energy for home and industrial power, vehicle propulsion, consumer electronics, remote sensing, security, and an endless list of existing applications that currently rely on energy from fossil fuel.

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Gratings Incorporated

Gratings Incorporated is a company that received a STTR Phase I grant for a project entitled: High Efficiency Thin-film Photovoltaics on Low-cost Substrates by Layer Transfer. Their their award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and their project will apply high aspect ratio, nm-scale, columnar, and crystalline Si structures as templates for high-quality growth of thin-film GaAs solar cells on low-cost flexible substrates. Sub-10-nm Si seed layers are expected to facilitate growth of low-defect density GaAs films. The aspect ratio of nm-scale structures also serve as sacrificial layers for removal of completed GaAs solar cell. Epitaxial growth and characterization of GaAs films on nm-scale Si structures will be carried out at the Center for High Technology at the University of New Mexico. Successful phase I STTR research will lead to commercialization of high (~ 20 %) efficient, flexible solar cells for applications in a wide range of terrestrial and space environments. Multiple substrate re-use and inherent large area processing capability of Si will result in significant cost reductions. High quality heteroepitaxial GaAs growth on Si has been a subject of intense research. Due to its direct bandgap, GaAs is attractive for a number of optoelectronics applications and its integration with Si-based microelectronics has been a cherished goal. The lattice and thermal expansion mismatches with Si make it difficult to grow good device quality layers. We have recently demonstrated as the Si seed dimension is reduced below 100 nm dimensions, the quality of heteroepitaxial growth increases rapidly. The nm-scale Si structures are formed using low-cost, large area methods based on conventional integrated circuit processing methods. Successful research effort will lead to reduction in PV generation costs, and enhanced applicability of thin-film PV in terrestrial and space environments because in contrast with competing thin-film solar cells, GaAs thin-film solar cells will not suffer from light-induced performance degradation.

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