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asperasoft.com

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Founded Year

2004

Stage

Acquired | Acquired

About Aspera

Aspera develops transport technologies that moves digital assets at maximum speed regardless of file size, transfer distance and network conditions. Based on its fasp protocol, Aspera software utilizes existing infrastructures to deliver a fast, predictable file transfer experience. Aspera's core technology delivers control over bandwidth, security and reliability. Aspera empowers individuals and corporations to increase productivity, minimize operational costs, expand revenues and explore new business models.

Aspera Headquarter Location

5900 Hollis Street Suite E

Emeryville, California, 94608,

United States

510-849-2386

Latest Aspera News

Developmental Toxicity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Amaranthaceae in Rat Embryos and Fetuses

Jun 1, 2021

in rat embryos and fetuses. Methods: Fresh leaves were extracted by mixing the grinded powder with 70% ethanol. Then, the extract was given orally to gravid Wistar rats at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg from day 6– 12 of gestation. On gestational days 12 and 20, embryos and fetuses were examined for developmental and gross malformations. Results: On day 12 embryos, the number of implantation sites and somites in 1000 mg/kg treated rats were significantly reduced. The number of implantation sites in pair-fed control and 1000 mg/kg groups was 11.2± 0.86 and 8.34± 0.65, respectively. Retarded development of hindlimb, forelimb, optic and olfactory systems was detected at a high dose. In addition, the number of branchial bar was significantly reduced in 1000 mg/kg dose. In near-term fetuses, significant reduction of litter weight and crown–rump length was seen at 1000 mg/kg dose. Crown–rump length in pair-fed control and 1000 mg/kg treated groups was 2.82± 0.17 cm and 2.31± 0.11 cm, respectively. Fetal resorptions and deaths in 1000 mg/kg were 1.45± 0.65 and 0.81± 0.67, respectively. However, external anomalies were not detected for all offspring at all doses. Conclusion: The finding suggests that ethanolic leaf extracts of A. aspera have detrimental effects on the development of rat embryos and fetuses at a higher dose. The possible teratogenic effects were indicated with the substantial retardation in embryonic and fetal development, decrease in number of implantation sites and rise in fetal resorptions and death. Moreover, it resulted in significant reduction in litter weight and crown–rump length at a higher dose. Keywords: Achyranthes aspera, toxicity, Wistar rat, embryo, fetus Introduction The utilization of traditional medicine and provision for therapeutic usage has been gaining popularity all over the world. 1 Herbal medicines are used by about 85% of the world’s population for disease prevention and management, and their use is growing all over the world. 2 In developing countries, utilization of traditional plants for therapeutic purposes has very important significance. In such countries, traditional medicinal plants are typically the preferred, accessible and inexpensive management because hospitals and/or local health centers provide inadequate medical care and/or there is no well developed health care system. 3 This is valid, for example, in some Latin American and African countries where provision of health care is not accessible for all communities. 3–7 In Ethiopia, where advanced public health facilities are limited and inaccessible, herbal medicine has been used by 80% of the community for primary health care. Traditional medical services are also practiced in Ethiopian cities, where interventional services are more commonly accessible, and contribute significantly to the country’s public health care system, especially in Addis Ababa. 8 Herbal medicinal plants are differentiated by their variety in terms of plant species used. Achyranthes aspera Linn. is one medicinal plant widely used for fertility control in the local health system of Ethiopia. It belongs to the family Amaranthaceae and is usually scattered as a wild plant all the way through the tropical and subtropical regions. 9 It is a long-lived (perennial) erect or spreading herb that can reach a height of 2 m. At the root, the stems become woody. Its opposite, simple, egg-shaped leaves can reach a length of 10 cm with 8 cm width. A. aspera is a variable species divided into six varieties, two of which have been documented from East Africa: A. aspera var. aspera has a long perianth and pointed leaves, while A. aspera var. indica has a short perianth and blunt leaves. 10 In various parts of the world, the plant is known by different names. In Amharic, it is known as “Telenge“ or “Ambulale”, and in English it is known as “Prickly-Chaff“ or “Devil’s Horsewhip”. 9 The leaves of A. aspera mainly contain hydroquinone (57.7%) followed by p-benzoquinone, spathulenol, nerol, α-ionone, asarone and eugenol. 11 A study conducted on phytochemical screening of methanolic leaf extract using chemical tests demonstrates the presence of saponins, tannis, polyphenolic glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and phytosteroidal compounds. 12 , 13 In tropical Asia and Africa, the plant is used as a folk remedy in traditional medical systems. The leaves of A. aspera have been used in the treatment of pyrexia, wound healing, tooth pain, inflammation of joints, gynecological disorders, renal disorders, insect and snake bites, abdominal tumor, dyspepsia and a number of other ailments. 14–16 Furthermore, different plant parts have been used to treat various illnesses such as tonsillitis, head wounds and ringworm. 17 , 18 Several studies reveal that the leaves of A. aspera have antifungal, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anticataract, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties. 19–25 And also, its leaf has abortifacient, diuretic, antidepressant, molluscidal and spermicidal effects. 26–30 Different parts of the plant extracts have been used for contraception, placental retention and postpartum bleeding. 31 The anti-implantation effect of the A. aspera root was found to be 83.3% at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight in a report on post-coital antifertility activity. As the rat progressed through the gestation, there was a high occurrence of fetal mortality near full term. As a result, the antifertility (anti-implantation and abortifacient) efficacy of the ethanolic extracts of A. aspera root is 100%. 32 The use of A. aspera has been studied and published extensively. 33 However, no research has been reported on the developmental toxicity of A. aspera leaves yet. As a result, the current study will look into the potential toxicity of A. aspera leaves in rat embryos and fetuses. Methods and Materials Experimental Design In vivo experiment was intended to evaluate the developmental toxicity of A. aspera in nulliparous female Wistar albino rats. It was conducted on 12-day-old embryos (Day-12 experiment) and 20-day-old fetuses (Day-20 experiment). Plant Materials Collection and Processing Leaves of A. aspera were collected from a location near Fiche Town in central Ethiopia in March 2020. A taxonomist identified the plant, and the voucher sample (AA-2135) was deposited in the herbarium for future use. Fresh leaves were dried under shade, ground into a coarse powder and mixed with 70% ethanol for 24 to 48 hours. It was then filtered using filter paper (Whatman No. 1). A rotary evaporator was used to dissolve the solvent. The extract was concentrated further in a water bath at 40°C by heating and evaporating the solvent. A total of 1 kg dry leaf was dissolved in 5 liters of 70% ethanol in a 1 to 5 ratio to produce 165.12 g (17.26%) crude extract. Then, the dried extract was placed in a firmly preserved container at −20°C until use. 34 Experimental Animals The experiments used Wistar albino rats: 25 male rats aged 3 months, and 50 female rats aged 12–14 weeks. The rats were sourced from the EPHI’s experimental animal breeding facility. All of the animals were kept in standard cages with consistent lighting and were kept at room temperature. Pellets and tap water were readily accessible to the animals. The animals were handled according to the International Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. After five days of acclimatization, the animals were mated overnight by placing male rats into a cage with two nulliparous female rats in 1:2 ratios. The next morning, the female rats were examined for a copulatory plug, and vaginal smears were taken for microscopic analysis of spermatozoa. Day 0 of pregnancy was defined as the presence of spermatozoa in a vaginal smear. 35 Grouping and Dosing of Pregnant Rats Gravid rats were randomly assigned into four groups, each with five animals: three experimental and one control. The pair-fed control group, Group I, was treated with distilled water. Groups II, III and IV were provided ethanolic leaf extracts of A. aspera at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. Animals were given a different dose of A. aspera extracts for a week, from day 6 to day 12 of gestation, since this is when embryogenesis and organogenesis are most involved. The A. aspera extract doses were chosen based on prior findings of acute toxicity studies. 36 The extract was measured, combined with distilled water and vortex-shaken continuously. With distilled water, the final amount was 2 mL/100 g, and oral gavage was used for administration. 35 Each animal in the experimental groups (Groups II, III and IV) received an equal amount of the control diet. Except for the A. aspera leaf extracts, which were given only to the experimental groups, the pair-fed control group had the same diet and was held in the same setting as the experimental groups. Every animal’s daily food intake was reported every morning, and their weight was documented on days 0, 6 and 12 of pregnancy for day-12 experiment and days 0, 6, 12 and 20 of gestation for day-20 experiment. 37 Day-12 Achyranthes aspera Leaf Extracts Experiment The purpose of the study was to see whether A. aspera could cause toxicity on day-12 rat embryos. The experiment was intended to reveal any birth defects that may not have been visible on day 20 fetuses due to potential compensatory growth and development. Gravid rats were allowed to lose their consciousness by cervical dislocation on day 12 of gestation, at noon. The rats were then put on an operating table in a supine position. The limbs were extended and fixed, and an abdominal mid-sagittal skin incision was used to open the abdominal cavity. Both sides’ skin flaps and abdominal muscles were mirrored laterally and secured with pins. After that, Hank’s balanced salt solution was used to dissolve the uterine horns. The embryos were then exposed by incising the uterine horns along the anti-mesometrial border. 37 To reveal the underlying visceral yolk sac, the membranes covering the embryos were cut with fine forceps and a dissecting microscope. The circulation and growth of the yolk sac were studied. Then, the embryos were explanted and the developments of all systems were quantified using Brown and Fabro parameters, which included 16 recognizable developmental endpoints. Moreover, the numbers of somites, implantations and resorptions sites were counted. 38 Day-20 Achyranthes aspera Leaf Extracts Experiment The purpose of this study was to see whether A. aspera had any toxic effects on 20-day-old rat fetuses. Pregnant rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation on day 20 of gestation. The procedure for dissecting pregnant rats was similar to that of the day-12 experiment. The uterine horns were exposed and examined intact. The number of implantation sites was determined by counting the metrial glands, which are yellowish nodules, located along the mesometrial margin of the uterine horns. The metrial nodules, which were not occupied by living or recently dead fetuses, represented the number of prior resorptions. The numbers of live or dead fetuses were determined by applying gentle pressure on them. The uterine horns were incised along the anti-mesometrial border to reveal the fetuses, fetal membranes and placenta. Fetuses were then recovered and dissected free of the placenta. The crown–rump length (CRL) was measured from the top of the head (crown) to the bottom of the buttocks. Moreover, placental weights were recorded. Following these measurements, the fetuses were fixed in Bouin’s solution (aqueous saturated solution of picric acid 75%, formalin 25% and glacial acetic acid 5%) for gross external examination. 37 Gross Evaluation The fetuses were observed using dissecting microscope, from head to tail for gross anomalies. The following parameters were examined: Craniofacial development

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Aspera Patents

Aspera has filed 7 patents.

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11/11/2013

3/31/2015

Network performance, Computer networking, Network protocols, Wireless networking, Transport layer protocols

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